Part 1: Outline
Verse1- Obadiah receives a vision from the Lord. This vision is concerning Edom and that an envoy has been sent among the nations to battle against Edom.
Verse 2- God is revealing that he will make Edom small compared to other nations surrounding it. He greatly despises Edom for its sin.
Verse 3- Edom’s arrogance will be its downfall to Earth. Edom is arrogant because of where it is established in the mountains, so it cannot be destroyed.
Verse 4- Compares Edom’s location to an eagle’s nest and how high it is compared to the stars. God is going to bring Edom down.
Verse 5- Compares Edom’s destruction to robber’s staling from people and gardeners stealing from the garden. This is used to show that God will take all away from Edom.
Verse 6- The kingdom of Esau will be ransacked and searched out. The descendants of Esau will have no more.
Verse 7- All of Edom’s allies will turn on Edom leading to its destruction.
Verse 8- God will wipe out the pagan wisdom of Edom, so it will not be a source of corruption to any.
Verse 9- Every man will be cut off from Edom by slaughter.
Verse 10- Edom will be judged for the violence that it has done to its brother Israel.
Verse 11- The destruction of Israel was done by Edom and by the its allies. They ransacked Israel as well.
Verse 12- Edom Gloated because of Israel’s destruction and rejoiced also to the destruction of Judah. Edom helped contribute to these horrific events.
Verse 13- They gloated over the calamity of Israel and the ransacking of their wealth.
Verse 14- Edom also killed those who fled the destruction of Israel and took many as prisoners.
Verse 15- The day of the Lord will be the day will God will judge Edom and every nation that is prideful towards their evil ways.
Verse 16- They will drink the wrath of the Lord and cease to exist.
Verse 17- Those of Mount Zion will escape Judgement and will be holy. The house of Jacob will regain their lost possessions.
Verse 18- Israel will be like a raging fire and Edom will be as stubble. This means that Israel will continue and Edom will have no survivors. The Lord has spoken.
Verse 19 and 20- The surrounding nations of Mount Zion will surround the territories that all of Israel’s enemies have lived including Edom.
Verse 21- Those who destroy Edom will ascend to Mount Zion and will judge the mountain of Esau. This is will be the Lord’s kingdom.
Part 2: Oracle Structure
The Oracle structure for the Book of Obadiah is set up as a lawsuit. The defendants are Edom which the charge being for its arrogance for what it has done to Israel. God is the Plaintiff, Prosecutor, Jury, Judge, etc. against the people of Edom. Edom is found guilty and will be destroyed by its past allies and will be ransacked of all the wealth Edom has. This will have happened no matter what because God is tired of Edom’s pride and sin towards Israel. This resolves the final conflict between Jacob and Esau’s descendants. God is the Judge, Jury, and Executor for every nation that contains pride for sin. This will happen on the final court case which will be the Day of the Lord. The Book of Obadiah is a prophecy concerning Edom and every nation that is filled with lust towards pride and sin.
Part 3: Connection to the Kingdom
God’s kingdom will be filled with the righteous and faithful. It will be free of sin and will only have pride for God. This will be fulfilled on the Day of the Lord when the kingdom comes to Earth. This will be the second coming of Christ when he comes to judge every nation and every person according to the works they have done. Just like Edom, every sinful nation will be judged and will be punished for sin towards God. There’s some eschatology here concerning the end of the first Earth and the beginning of the new Earth. God will establish his kingdom once and for all in the new Heavens and Earth.
Part 4: Application
There is a simple application we must follow. We must not be prideful and sinful or we will be judged like Edom. We all know that as Humans we cannot accomplish this, so Christ accomplished this for us on the Cross. The Cross is the first major step in God’s plan for establishing his Kingdom. The second step was the Resurrection of Christ and the revival of the Church. The final Step will be his day when he judges all nations. Until this day comes, we must be prideful for God and not for ourselves.
Bible Translations: NASB, ESV, NIV
Video: The Bible Project: The Book of Obadiah
Book: How to read the Bible for all it’s Worth
Encountering the Old Testament
Bible Commentary: The Interpreters Bible Volume 6
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Part 1: Outline of The book of Matthew
Chapter 1- The genealogy of Jesus from the line of David and from the line of Abraham.
The virgin birth of Christ through Mary. Immanuel which means God with us.
Chapter 2- The Magi visit Jerusalem looking for Christ. Herod heard this and commands that Christ be found and killed in fear of losing his power. Magi visit Bethlehem and give their Gifts. Herod dies and Joseph receives visions to go to Nazareth.
Chapter 3- Introduces who John the Baptist is and his relation to Jesus. Jesus is baptized by John the Baptist.
Chapter4- Jesus fasts in the desert for forty days. Is tempted by Satan 3 times. Jesus begins his ministry in Galilee. Meets Peter and Andrew.
Chapter5-7- Sermon on the Mount. Marriage and Divorce discussed. Teaching of lust and hate in the heart commits adultery and murder. Teaching about giving to the poor and how to pray. Judge others is addressed as well as the coming of the Kingdom.
Chapter8-9- Jesus starts to bring the kingdom to earth. Heals the leper and heals the centurion’s daughter. Jesus forgives the sins of the paralytic and Pharisees start to see Jesus as a problem.
Chapter 10- Jesus give instructions to his disciples on preaching and spreading the word. If any don’t take you in, then you leave and dust your field from that town. Jesus also takes about the cost of following him and the worth of it.
Chapter 11- John starts to doubt the divinity of Jesus and Jesus gives his reply. Jesus also talks about his divinity and relationship with the father.
Chapter 12- The Sabbath is brought up by the Pharisees and Jesus answer them by saying that he is the lord of the Sabbath. He starts to cast demons out of people and the Pharisees start to get concern.
Chapter 13- Jesus starts talking in style of parables. He teaches on the parable of the Sower. He talks about the purpose of parables. He explains the parable of the Sower. He talks about the parable of weeds and explains the meaning of the parable of weeds. He teaches about the parable of the Mustard Seed and the leaven. The last three parables consist of the hidden treasure, pearl of great value, and the net. Jesus ends up being rejected in his Hometown.
Chapter 14- John the Baptist is Beheaded. Jesus mourns over his death. The crowd comes to Jesus and he feeds over five thousand people. Jesus heals the sick men at the land of Gennesaret.
Chapter 15- The Pharisees challenge Jesus on Tradition and the commandments and responds to them as he usually does. Jesus teaches that what comes out of the mouth of man defiles him. Jesus has mercy on the Canaanite woman for her faith. Jesus heals more people in a crowd of lame and blind. Jesus feeds another crowd of over five thousand people.
Chapter 16- The Pharisees and Sadducees try and test Jesus by asking for signs. Jesus warns the disciples about the way of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Christ asks the disciples who they think he is. Peter confesses that he is the messiah, but mistakes how he will become King. Jesus tells the disciples about his death and resurrection. Jesus tells them to take their Cross along with him.
Chapter 17- The Transfiguration happens when Moses and Elijah appear to Jesus as spirits. This helps establishes his deity even more. Jesus heals the boy with the demon and tells the disciples of their lack of faith. Jesus talks about taxes and tells peter to fish to receive a shekel from the first fish.
Chapter 18- Jesus answers who is the greatest in Heaven by using a child to demonstrate his answer. Jesus talks about how we should get rid of our temptation for sin and to do at any cost.
Jesus teaches the parable of the lost sheep. Jesus talks about what we should do if one of our brother’s sin against us. Jesus teaches the parable of the unforgiving servant.
Chapter 19- Jesus teaches on Divorce and lays the foundations for divorce. Jesus states that Children belong in Heaven. Jesus has the dispute with the young rich man about the cost of following. He tells him to give up all his riches and the young man went away sad.
Chapter 20- The parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard is a parable to describe what the Kingdom is like. Jesus predicts his death a third time. Jesus responds to the woman who requests her sons to be in Heaven. Jesus heals the two blind men who came out of Jericho.
Chapter 21- Jesus gets the donkey to fulfill the prophecy of the messiah riding a donkey into Jerusalem. Jesus cleanses the temple from the tax collectors. Jesus curses the fig tree to demonstrates the power of faith. Jesus authority is challenged by the Pharisees. Two more parables are given. These parables are the two sons and the tenants.
Chapter 22- Pericope- Mathew 22:1-14 Parable of the Wedding Feast. Jesus is challenged about taxes and respond by Saying: give unto God’s which is God’s and give unto Caesar’s which is Caesar’s. Sadducees ask about the resurrection and Jesus shows that their position is wrong. Jesus gives the Greatest Commandment which is to love God and your neighbor as thyself. Jesus asks the Pharisees a question about David and they couldn’t answer.
Chapter 23- Jesus gives the Seven Woes to the Scribes and Pharisees. Jesus morns over Jerusalem.
Chapter 24- Jesus predicts the destruction of the temple since they rejected Jesus. Jesus give the signs of the end times. Jesus talks about the coming of the son of man in the last days. Jesus talks about how nobody knows the time when the son of man will come.
Chapter 25- The parable of the ten virgins and used to represent those prepared for the coming of Christ. The parable of talents is used again to show about those prepared for the end times. Jesus talks about the Final Judgement on Sin and the Devil.
Chapter 26- The Pharisees come up with the plot to kill Jesus. The woman anoints Jesus at Bethany. Judas betrays Jesus to the Pharisees. The final feast takes place during Passover with the disciples. Jesus tells peter that he will deny him three times. Jesus prays at Gethsemane before Judas leads the guards to him. Judas betrays Jesus and the guards arrest him. Jesus is judged by the Caiaphas and the Council. They find him guilty of Blasphemy. Peter denies Jesus three times just how Jesus betrays him.
Chapter 27- Jesus is brought to Pilate and is tested by Pilate. Judas feels guilty for betraying Jesus and hangs himself. Jesus is condemned by the crowd and elect Barabbas to go free from condemnation. Pilate washes his hands and condemns Jesus to be Crucified. The guards mock Jesus by spitting on him and beating him. The crucifixion takes place and Jesus dies on the ninth hour. Jesus is buried by Joseph of Arimathea by request to Pilate. Pilate has guards to defend the tomb from raiders or possibly against the disciples.
Chapter 28- Mary goes to the tomb and is greeted by the angel. The angel tells her that Jesus has risen. Jesus met the disciples and greeted them The disciples fell and knees to worship. The guards give their report to the high priest. The priests give commands to spread a rumor that the disciples stole the body. The great commission is given by Jesus to the disciples to spread the Gospel to all the world.
Pericope Location- Matthew 22:1-14
Context/Parallel Chapter 21 and rest of Chapter 22
Parallel Pericope: Luke 14:15-24
Part 2: Outline of the Passage/Pericope
Matthew 22: 1-14
Part 3: Context
Took place during the last weeks of Jesus.
Geographically took place in Jerusalem.
Year could roughly be either 33AD or 34AD
Parable is directed toward the historical group of the Pharisees.
Is part of a series of parables in the last weeks of Jesus ministry.
Context of pericope (Audience)
It’s for the people listening to the past parables.
This is his crowd and it includes the Pharisees who tested him previously.
It can still be applied to people nowadays.
It’s in context to his ministry in Jerusalem.
The message of the parable represents the kingdom reaching out to sinners.
Points of reference:
The punchline of this parable is to demonstrate the invitation Christ.
The Pharisees are the first guests to be invited but reject because of the law.
The other guests invited are the world being invited to be in communion with God.
The man without wedding garments are the ones who were not the ones who were prepared final judgement.
The main point is that many are called, but few are chosen.
The catchphrase is many are called by the kingdom of God, but few of chosen.
God calls, those who chose him and accept his invitation no matter good or bad.
Wedding Feast- Communion with God through Christ
Servants- Christi’s followers and disciples
Original guests- Jews and the Pharisees
Servants killed- Persecution of Christians
Second round of guests invited- Those the disciples have evangelized to
Guest without wedding garment- Those who reject God
Invitation- Gospel, call to repentance
Outer Darkness- Hell
Part 4: The Point
My interpretation: The king who sets up the wedding feast is God himself. He had specific invitation for the original guests, but they rejected for reasons for daily life. This represents the Jews who Christ came for, but they rejected for the law. The dinner prepared for the feast represents Christ dying for his people or ones invited. The servants are his disciples who go to spread the invitations to the guests. Of course they reject him, and even kill some of his servants. This seems to indicate the persecution of the church. The king sending out the army I believe represents the Romans destroying Jerusalem, since they rejected Christ as the messiah. When the king sends his servants to the highway they are to invite as many people as possible. They invite bad and good people to the wedding feast. This would represent sinners and even righteous people. God chose to invite everyone including Jews and Gentiles. Many accept the invitation and come to the feast. The king comes out and notices a man without proper garments. The man is speechless and is put into the outer darkness. I believe this represents the final judgement of man and the man represents one who has not repented. The final line is many are called, but few are chosen. This means that God calls all, but he chooses those who repent and put their faith in him.
In Comparison with the Interpreters Commentary: My view has many similarities with the commentary. The first invites were for the Jews, but the Jews rejected this. Both I and the commentary agreed with this point. The commentary agreed upon the idea of the King Being God and the second invites being the gentiles and Jews who turn to Christ. The servants seem to be the disciples according to the commentary and the persecution of the church represents the servants being killed when inviting the first guests. The good and bad represents the judgment of God according to the commentary. I differ from the point of view, but agree with the rest of the commentary.
Bibles: ESV, NIV, NASB
How to read the Bible for all it’s worth by Gordon D. Fee and Douglas Stuart
The Interpreters Bible Volume 7
The Bible Project: Scripture Reading of Matthew
Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Dv4-n6OYGI
Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGCF3OPWN14
The truth of a claim is established only on the basis of its popularity and familiarity. This is the fallacy committed by many commercials. Surely you have heard of commercials implying that we should buy a certain product because it has made to the top of a sales rank, or because the brand is the city’s “favorite”.
Statistics can commit this fallacy if a survey asks people what they think of a certain subject and they have no good knowledge for giving a valid opinion. Say we give a survey to try and prove who is a better candidate for president, but we only ask California (Joke don’t get offended) who they think is the better candidate for president and they only this survey use this as their evidence. Then obviously that would be appeal to popularity.
This would be a fallacy that commits intellectual suicide and intellectual laziness. You don’t even think for yourself and just go with what other people say. If everyone was believing the Earth was flat because of popular vote, then you would be illogical to believe that because we have the evidence against the Earth being flat. Again you would be committing the appeal to popularity fallacy.
Consent of a group doesn’t determine the truth of a certain claim at all. Now a group of people that is trained in the study of that claim consent would help make a claim more plausibly true. Now, if they are just arguing just based on their degrees or reasons irreverent to the claim then they would be using appeal to authority and a bunch of red herrings. What determines truth of a claim is evidence and facts backing it up the claim.
Atheists and theists commit this fallacy a lot, but usually every layman commits this fallacy. Theists would probably use this by saying: “Everyone else believes in God so why don’t you?” Atheists would commit this by saying you only believe in God because everyone else in your
environment believes in God. They would also be committing the genetic fallacy along with
appeal to popularity. These are two common examples that theists and atheists use the appeal to popularity fallacy.
There are four common types of appeal to popularity:
Bandwagon Argument: Everyone is doing this, so you should. Counter example: If everyone was jumping off a bridge would you.
Appeal to Vanity: Argument links love, admiration, or approval of the crowd with some famous figure who is loved, admired, or approved of.
Appeal to Snobbery: Argument appeals to smaller group that is supposed to be superior in some way- more wealthy, more powerful, more culturally refined, more intelligent, and so on.
Appeal to Tradition: Argument appeals to the fact of something has become a tradition as grounds for conclusion.
Now, this fallacy is used in common debate among layman, but usually will not be found among professional philosophers. I encourage you to get familiar with these argument forms because you will encounter them in many of your conversations. Finally, study fallacies so you will be able spot fallacious arguments.
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In offering an argument, pity is appealed to. Usually this happens when people argue for special treatment on the basis of their need. E.g. a student argues that the teacher should let him/her pass the examination because he/she needs it in order to graduate. Of course, pity might be a relevant consideration in certain conditions, as in contexts involving charity.
This is to me the easiest logical fallacy to point out because it also seems to be a red herring to distract from the argument at hand. It is an irrelevant attempt to get you past an argument by appealing to your emotions, especially pity. It is used as a smoke screen argument just in case their argument fails they rely and distracting you by pressuring you to have pity on them. If you fail to recognize this fallacy than your opponent will catch you off guard. The opponent tries to make you have empathy to distract you from other fallacies they might making. Here are some examples:
A man is pulled over for speeding and the officer gives a fine for Speeding. The man argues with the cop about whether he was speeding or not, then realizes he isn’t going to win the argument. He resorts to telling the cop that he was speeding to the hospital because his wife was having a kid and he wants to make sure he witnesses his child’s birth. Whether this is true or not is irrelevant to the fact that he was speeding. He tried to get the officer to have pity on him to get him past the fact that he was breaking the law of going over the assigned MPH for the speed limit. It was used also as a red herring to get them past the fact that was speeding.
Another example of this would be if you are in a court room and you are being charged with first degree murder. The evidence is against you and you have no way to fight the evidence, so you will have to attack the emotions of the judge. You tell the judge: your honor I have donated to many charities to help people in third world countries. Have pity on me! The judge realizes that you have committed first degree murder and the charity donations are irrelevant to fact of defendant committing first degree murder. He is stilled charged with life in prison.
Both of these examples are demonstrate how pity is used to distract people in arguments to appeal to emotions. This isn’t to common in theist vs. atheist debates except when Hell is brought up. The Atheist will say I’ve done good in my life and no one will deny that, but no human is good to the standard which is God’s nature. Which means our crimes against his image on us is not a counter balance by good works like just how the murderer tried to get off free because he donated to charity before. I will also make a future video addressing Hell because obviously it is a serious issue. Now that you have learned about the appeal to pity logical fallacy you can spot in debates you have with other people or skeptics.
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Jesus and the Kingdom
The End Times are interesting to Study. Whether it be in the Book of Daniel or in the Book of Revelation which contain most of end times imagery. The Jews during the first century were obsessed over the law and end times prophecy. I’m not saying that prophecy isn’t important, but rather it’s not are main focus. The Jews missed Jesus’ calling because they were focused on both of these concepts. Prophecy in the Old Testament was used to establish who the messiah was and where he would be. The Book of Daniel gives a detailed account of the messiah and so do many of the prophets as well. Many of the Jews rejected Christ as the Messiah because they believed that they messiah would overthrow Rome. Rome ended up crucifying Christ to establish their power. Jesus didn’t come to overthrow human power, but rather the power of sin. We make Christ our God because he saved us from ourselves. The Gospels are not about us, but about Christ who gave the ultimate sacrifice which he did not deserve.
Jesus spoke in parables to demonstrate the uniqueness of Heaven and the fact that it can be compared with earthly things. In the article “Kingdom: What among the Weeds” the author talks about how Christ didn’t come as a warlord. The author stated that he used to be obsessed with end time and that they were going to happen during the times of the Soviet Union. Many Christians use to think that U.S president Obama fulfilled many End Times prophecies. I use to be one of those Christians obsessed with the end times and missed the true purpose of parables and prophecy. The prophecies of Christ affirm who he is and his relation with God and his people. Jesus used parables to represent his authority, the glory of the kingdom, and Christ’s glory over sin. His parables resemble his character and divine relationship with God. They demonstrate that he will come for his people and we must be ready. The parables of the tenants and the parables of the 10 virgins demonstrate my previous point. Matthew 24 talks about the end times and sets up the book revelation to show that Christ will return in the worst time of human history. The parables have been used to foreshadow future events about the kingdom of Heaven coming to the Kingdom of Earth and Christ will be the ruler of both.
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