This list’s standards are based mostly of my opinions and the impact these ministries have had overall on the defense of the Christian Faith. These great apologists have helped me as a young apologists and many other Christians as well. This is my personal list of the top ten modern day Christian apologists. Also, these apologists are the ones that I have come across, so if you have any other great apologists, then let me know. Finally, here are my top ten picks for the defenders of the Christian Faith.
#10: Dr. Frank Turek
Dr. Frank Turek has a Master’s degree in Public Administratives from George Washington University and a Doctorate in Philosophy of Religion from Southern Evangelical Seminary. He’s written 4 books and co-authored more books as welled. He’s well known for his book I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist and Stealing From God: Why Atheists Need God To Make Their Case. He’s debated Christopher Hitchens, David Silverman, and many other atheists. He hosts a TV show called I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist and hosts a radio show called Cross-Examined. He Speaks at college campuses to give a case for the truth of the Gospel. Dr. Frank Turek is also the president of CrossExamined.org.
#9: Dr. Hugh Ross
Hugh Ross has a degree in Physics from the University of British Columbia and a PhD in Astronomy from the University of Toronto. Hugh is the owner of Reasons to believe which is an organization that gives scientific reasons to believe in God and Christianity. He has defended the proposition that the age of the Earth is compatible with the Bible. He has written many scientific books for presenting the science for God. Improbable Planet was written by him to show that Earth’s origin is best explained by God. He’s debated many Young Earth Creationists like Kent Hovind and Ken Ham. He’s also debated atheists like Lewis Wolpert. He has truly demonstrated that faith and Science are compatible.
#8: James Warner Wallace
James Warner Wallace was an atheist for 35 years and turned Christian when applying his homicide detective skills to the claims of Christianity. He found the gospel accounts of Jesus of Nazareth to be reliable eyewitness accounts. He’s written three books for developing a solid case for the truth of Christianity. His book Forensic Faith, has shown that all Christians should make the case for Christianity since it’s a reasonable faith. God’s Crime Scene, makes the case for the existence of God and explains why we need to go outside the room to account for certain phenomena’s of our universe. Cold Case Christianity, makes the case for the reliability of the New Testament documents and the truth of the Christian faith. He has teamed up with Frank Turek on Fearless Faith Seminars to help spread the need for Apologetics. He shows what apologetics can do for an unbeliever.
#7: Dr. J.P Moreland
Dr. J.P Moreland is a Professor of Philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Biola University. He holds four degrees which are B.S. in chemistry from the University of Missouri, Th.M. in theology from Dallas Theological Seminary, M. A. in philosophy from the University of California-Riverside, and Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Southern California. He has written many book on apologetics and philosophy. The reason he is on my top ten list is how Dr. Moreland is the defender of the soul and dualism today. He’s written many books about consciousness, free will, and the soul. He is a colleague of apologists like Dr. William Lane Craig. Moreland has challenged skeptics to rethink their materialist worldview concerning the soul.
#6: Lee Strobel
Lee Strobel was a journal writer for the Chicago Tribune and wrote for other newspapers as well. He has two degrees which include a Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Missouri and his Master of Studies in Law at Yale Law School. He was an atheist writer who wanted to prove the gospels were wrong and that Jesus Christ did not rise from the Dead. He turned Christian when he investigated the claims of the gospels from using his journalism skills. Just like J Warner Wallace, he turned Christian while trying to prove Christianity to be false. He has written The Case for Christ, The Case for a Creator, and The Case for Faith. These books have left in impact in the field of apologetics. Lee Strobel has made the case for Christianity through his extensive writings and commitments to the Gospel.
#5: Dr. Gary Habermas
Dr. Habermas is the chairman of the philosophy and theology at Liberty University. He has a PhD from Michigan State University in history and philosophy of religion and a master's degree from the University of Detroit in philosophical theology. He has made the case for the resurrection, the most important event of Jesus’ earthly ministries. He has debated Anthony Flew on the question of whether the resurrection actually happened. 4 of the seven judges voted that Gary won and the other four were undecided. He has co-authored over 35 books and written over 100 articles concerning his fields of study.
#4: Dr. Norman Geisler
Dr. Geisler has co-authored over 100 books and written hundreds of articles concerning Christian Apologetics. He has many degrees in theology and philosophy. Some refer to him as a cross between Thomas Aquinas and Billy Graham. He has also coauthored I don’t have enough Faith to be an Atheist with Frank Turek. He has taught people like Dr. William Lane Craig and Greg Koukl. Norman has participated in many debates and has sealed the deal with many concerning the truth of Christianity. Dr. Norman Geisler has set the foundation for modern day Christian Apologetics.
#3: Dr. John Lennox
John Lennox is a professor of Mathematics at Oxford University (same University that Richard Dawkins teaches at). John Lennox holds an MA and DPhil from Oxford University and an MA in Bioethics from the University of Surrey. He was taught under the great C.S Lewis so he has some teaching experience from one of the best apologists. He’s written books like God’s Undertaker: Has Science Buried God? Another great book of his is Seven Days that Divide the World. This book gives John’s commentary of the controversy concerning the different interpretations of Genesis 1. Lennox has debated many of the New Atheists like Christopher Hitchens and Lawrence Krauss. The best of his debates are the two debates with the main horseman of the New Atheist movement. He’s debated Richard Dawkins twice and gave him a run for his money twice. These two debates are the closest we will get to see of a Richard Dawkins vs. William Lane Craig style debate. John Lennox has made science very compatible with the Faith of Christians.
#2: Ravi Zacharias
Almost on his deathbed at age 17, Ravi felt dead inside. He heard the gospel and came to Christ. Ever since then, he has defended the truth of the Christian Faith with grace and clarity. He started Ravi Zacharias International Ministries which has offices in many places on the globe. Their goal is to spread the Gospel to as many countries as possible and to give a defense for the Gospel. Ravi Zacharias has written many books concerning apologetics and the divinity of Jesus Christ. In Jesus among other Gods, Ravi compares the main differences between Christianity and other Religions. His most recent book Jesus Among Secular Gods, Ravi Zacharias and Vince Vitale compare the main differences between Jesus and new secular religions that have attacked the truth of Christianity. Ravi Zacharias has defended the truth of Christianity against those who deny the deity of Christ.
#1: Dr. William Lane Craig
Dr. William Lane Craig is perhaps one of the best defenders of the Christian Faith today. He has done over hundred of debates defending the Christian Faith against other Worldviews. He has debated most of the New Atheist Horsemen, excluding Dawkins of course. He has many degrees concerning philosophy and religion. He has a B.A from Wheaton College. He has a M.A from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Birmingham and University of Munich. William Lane Craig is currently a research Professor of Philosophy at Talbot School of Theology. Craig has defended his five-point case for Christianity which consist of the Kalam Cosmological argument, the Fine-Tuning of argument, the Moral argument, the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and the fact that we can experience God. He has written and coauthored over 30 books concerning Christian Philosophy and Apologetics. Dr. William Lane Craig has truly made the Christian Faith a Reasonable Faith.
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In my studies of the Kalam Cosmological Argument, I’ve come across some interesting objections. Some of these objections are good objections and some are just held high among YouTube, atheist laymen. This article will deal with the good objections and a link will be given to Dr. Craig’s response to the online YouTube objections. I’ll give my opinions and refutations of ten good objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument.
Objection #1: What if the Big Bang Theory is wrong?
Big Bang Cosmology is accepted among the majority of cosmologists, physicists, and other scientists that deal with these fields of science. If this theory is proven wrong, then we must remain neutral on whether the universe had a beginning or not. Until a future model of science proves the universe is eternal, then we must withhold judgment about the universe origins. The Laws of Thermodynamics is proven science and is understood as fact. These laws would still prove the beginning of the universe and so would the philosophical arguments.
Objection #2: Quantum Vacuums have shown that something can come from nothing.
Quantum Vacuums are described by Lawrence Krauss as vacuums of empty space that subatomic particles pop into existence without of a cause. These vacuums are described as nothing. This commits the fallacy of equivocation because it switches the definition of nothing. Nothing is not anything, but a Quantum Vacuum is something. A Quantum Vacuum is a sea of fluctuation of energy that pop these particles into existence. A Quantum Vacuum is not nothing in the philosophical sense, but in the scientific sense which are two complete different definitions of nothing.
Objection #3: The first premise doesn’t apply to the universe, since time began at the Big Bang.
Time began at the universe, so A theory of time only applies to the universe. The first premise is everything that begins to exist has a cause. Either a material cause or a sufficient cause. Something cannot come from nothing because out of nothing, nothing comes. If you deny this, then you have a heavy burden of proof. Science lives by this rule and would be destroyed if something could come from nothing. Why doesn’t a desk, a copy of myself, or anything else pop into existence out of nothing at any time. We just don’t see this and it’s reasonable to conclude that the same applies to the universe. If this rule doesn’t apply to the universe, then why doesn’t a universe pop into existence by nothing in our universe? God, an unchanging and timeless being which could solve this objection at the end of the day.
Objection #4: The singularity is infinite and eternal of just matter.
When we trace the expansion of the universe backwards, we find that there was a singular moment when there was no time, space, or matter. This right of the back shows that there could not be a singular point with an eternal and infinite amount of matter. Also, general relativity would show this to be false as well because it shows that time, matter, and space are relative. If one comes into existence, then they all have to. If space didn’t exist, then where would matter be. If time didn’t exist, then when would matter be. The Big Bang theory shows at least time coming into existence, so it follows that matter and space do as well.
Objection #5: It’s a God of the Gaps argument.
Does this argument plug in God to explain something that we don’t understand? Is the argument just one big appeal to ignorance? At first glance, this objection may seem reasonable, but under cross-examination it just falls apart. I would refer you to my article on the appeal to ignorance fallacy to explain what this fallacy is. I’ll leave a link in this article. This is a philosophical argument that is not used to explain some sort of scientific phenomenon that we can’t explain. Science that we understand is actually used to help reinforce the second premise, that the universe began to exist. In fact, we are using God to explain something that we do understand such as the fact that the universe had a beginning and that everything that begins to exist has a cause. You would have to refute these premises to accuse the argument of explaining something that we don’t understand. Finally, if you claim that science will one day have an explanation, then you must state what the explanation is. Otherwise, you commit the appeal to ignorance fallacy because you are appealing to something that we don’t know anything about. This would be a future naturalistic explanation to explain the origin of the universe. It would also beg the question because you assume there will be a naturalistic explanation. This sounds like blind faith to me.
Objection #6: Why does the Cause have to be God?
Time, matter, and space had a beginning so the cause cannot be contained of these three things. To say otherwise would be begging the question. The cause would have to be uncaused because we have to stop at a certain point because otherwise we are left with an infinite regress. It’s not special pleading because atheists like David Hume have assumed that the universe had always existed. The cause would also be very powerful to be able to create a universe. This is what we mean by God, a timeless, space less, immaterial, powerful, uncaused, eternal being.
Objection #7: Why would the cause have to conscious/personal?
The wind causes a leaf to fall of a tree, so why would the cause not be an impersonal force like the wind. Would it not be special pleading to say the cause of the universe is a being of some sort. The person claiming this would be missing the point and would realize the special case. There are three reasons why the cause of the universe would have to be a mind. First, there are two main immaterial realities. Abstract objects like numbers or an unembodied mind. Minds have freewill capability and would be able to cause the universe. Abstract objects have no causing power, but an abstract mind like God could. Secondly, the cause would have to be a mind because if this cause was an unconscious object, then it’s effect would be eternal as well. Think of water freezing. If the cause of water freezing was eternal, then it’s effect like the cause would be eternal. A mind could make a choice and its effect would not be an eternal effect. Finally, the initial conditions set at the big bang are fine-tuned, such as the expansion rate of the universe after the big bang. This would imply rationality, which implies a type of mind. These are three main reasons for why the cause would be a mind.
Objection #8: Could the multiverse have caused our universe?
It’s possible that that there’s many universes that caused our universe, but it’s just not reasonable to believe. First of all, there’s no evidence for the multiverse at all. We also must remember that we could not access something physical like this because our universe is a closed system. It’s more of a metaphysical, philosophical question than a scientific question because it can’t be proved or disproved by the scientific method. Also, The Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem help shows that any universe expanding is finite in the past. Essentially, the whole show of the multiverse would need a beginning. It also seems to push the problem back even more because the second law of thermodynamics would still apply to these other universes. The multiverse is also an objection to the fine-tuning argument, so I’ll give the rest of my critique of it in my future articles on the fine-tuning argument. At the end of the day, the multiverse is just highly speculative.
Objection #9: What about an oscillating universe model?
Even though it’s not accepted by most cosmologists, it’s still an objection that’s possible. Has the universe been contracting and expanding for eternity? First, this claim needs to be proved and it has not meant its burden of proof. However, I will give my arguments against this model’s existence. The second law of thermodynamics is highly understood and would refute this model. It would require more energy for the universe to expand and contract multiple times, so we would expect the universe to reach heat death eventually. Obviously, we are not in heat death. The philosophical arguments would help against this oscillating universe as well. This would have to be an infinite process, but we know we can’t have an actually infinite number of events. This oscillating universe would leave us with an infinite regression that destroys science. Going with Occam’s razor, it’s more simply to infer the universe had a beginning. Finally, the most disastrous thing to this model is our current law of gravity. If the universe crunched back on itself, then it would not be able to expand again.
Objection #10: Who created God?
If everything needs a cause, then what caused God? Every time I present this argument to my atheist friends, they always ask this question. The first premise is everything that begins to exist has a cause. Unless you can prove that an uncaused thing like God had a beginning, then this is a nonsensical question. Asking this question leads to an infinite regress which again, would destroy science. This is also another objection to the fine-tuning argument, so the design aspect will be dealt with in future articles. Why couldn’t the universe cause itself? The universe began to exist, so the cause must be something other than the universe. It would be like me saying that I gave birth to myself. It’s simply nonsensical and a question begging statement. This question is the biggest strawman of all arguments against the existence of God.
These questions and objections are worth the discussion. The Kalam Cosmological argument is a logically valid argument in its syllogistic form and has sound premises. It has withstood its scrutiny and objections. Since it’s a successful argument, we can infer that a theistic God is the cause of the universe. For extra resources, check out the links given below.
Kalam Cosmological Argument:
Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy:
Extra resources that deal with even more objections:
Dr. Craigs response to online laymen objections:
I don’t believe in God. You just have to have faith. There is no evidence for God. Jesus never existed. I see no reasons to believe in Christianity. People don’t come to Christ through arguments. Why does a Good God allow Evil? Why are Christians such Hypocrites? Why are there so many contradictions in the Bible? Are the gospels reliable eyewitness accounts? Are eyewitnesses even reliable as a source of truth? Does God even exist?
These questions and objections to Christianity are good for Christians to ponder about. My first encounter with these questions destroyed my faith because I wasn’t exposed to good answers to these questions and objections. Apologetics deal with these questions and objections by providing a solid defense for the truth of Christianity. It deals with these questions by answering them with well thought answers. Objections are dealt with by providing well thought out responses and refutations. Apologetics is the cornerstone for the foundation that holds the truth and validity of Christianity. As Christians, we are commanded to study apologetics and give a defense for the hope within us (1st Peter 3:15). Isn’t also helpful to know why something is true in the first place? I would hope the answer is yes because otherwise you are left with unbiblical faith. This type of faith would be blind faith which is believing without evidence. The type of faith described in the Bible is a type of Forensic Faith or trust based on evidence. James Warner Wallace has made a case for this in his book Forensic Faith.
Through my journey as a Christian, I’ve realized that the truth of Christianity is being attacked intellectually. The New Atheists have accused Christians of being irrational for believing in Christianity. Are they right? What are the main reasons for why Christians believe in Jesus of Nazareth described in the Bible? Typically, a person believes in the Christian faith because they were raised in a Christian home, they’ve had an experience with Christianity, or they just like the religion. Are these actual rational reasons for believing Christianity to be true? These are just subjective, personal preferences that have no truth value in reality. If Christianity is true, then these would not be the reasons to show why. Atheists are unfortunately are right when it comes to modern day Christian’s lack of pursuit for intellectual reasons for their beliefs. Does this mean that Christianity is not true? Are their actual intellectual reasons for believing Christianity to be true? Apologetics strives to answer these questions.
Again, apologetics means to give a defense for something. Christian apologetics seeks to give a defense for the truth of Christianity. Modern Christians lack the proper theology of apologetics that Christ and his followers practiced. In the book Forensic Faith, James Warner Wallace makes the case for why Christians should make the case for Christianity. He shows how the main man Jesus himself, made a Case for his divinity. He performed miracles in his own name to establish his deity as God incarnate. Paul reasoned with the Pharisees that Christ was who he claimed to be. He referred to the scriptures to show how they establish his position as messiah. Justin Martyer wrote the First Apology, which was the first apologetics document written to the polytheists of the Roman Empire. He made the case for theism and the truth of Christianity like every Christian should. These early Christians were apologists because they had experience with the greatest apologist who was Christ himself. Apologetics is of the upmost importance since is reflects the likeness of Christ.
Apologetics is important for five main reasons. First, It’s a commandment from Scripture; 1 Peter 3:15 demonstrates this point because Peter tells us to give a reason for the hope within you. We must remember the rest of the verse “Do this with gentleness and respect”. We can give an argument without being argumentative. We can give a defense without being defensive. Basically, we have to present our case without a condescending attitude because no one will listen to what we have to say. We will be shut out if we break down the door. The second reason for why apologetics is important is because it helps us with our own doubts. If we have unanswered questions that you don’t know how to deal with, then you will most likely fall from our faith. If you have apologetics under your belt, then you will be able to deal with these questions and concerns. Thirdly, apologetics will help equip us better for evangelizing. When people cast their questions and objections, we will be able to answer them. The questions and objections answered to those we witness too will leave a good impression of Christianity. If Christians are prepared to give a defense for the gospel, then those asking will have good reasons to believe. Fourthly, apologetics helps us to fulfill the first commandant to love the Lord our God with all our mind. If we love the Lord with all our mind, then we show our commitment towards him. Finally, apologetics glorifies God because it shows why he is the ultimate reality. God is established as the ultimate truth and why we should put our faith in him. If Apologetics is falls behind, then the truth of Christianity will fall.
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YouTube Channel Update and Social Media
I know I have not posted a video recently. It’s mainly because I’ve been working on my social media and main website. I will however be posting some more videos because I’m on my fall break from College. Oh yeah, I’m a college student now and double majoring in Biblical Studies and Philosophy. That’s also a main factor in why I haven’t posted any new videos for the past couple weeks. It’s been difficult in trying to be a good student and maintain my apologetics ministry. I’m becoming better with my time management skills, so we shall see some changes here.
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I have updated my website to ChristianTruthThroughApologetics.com. I’ve been getting much support from fellow Christians and apologists. I could use your support to help spread the news of my apologetics website because people seem to really enjoy my content. If you want to see more about who I am, then you can check out my author page.
If you enjoy my articles, then most likely you will like my YouTube Videos. I could use help getting the news out about my channel and website. If you could spread the news and even make a video, then I would highly appreciate it. I will be continuing my apologetics videos, logical fallacy videos, and book reviews. When I get to fifty subscribers I will make a 50 subscriber special.
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With all these things in mind I hope your support me. I hope to reach my generation through apologetics, so 75% will come back to Christ. It’s ultimately up to you to make the decision. I promise your support will not be in vain.
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Sharing your faith with non-believers isn’t always easy, even for experienced Christians. One of the things I have heard from fellow believers again and again is: “I just don’t know how to get the conversation started.”
In a study conducted by LifeWay Research, it was found that 80 percent of those who attend church one or more times a month believe they have a personal responsibility to share their faith, but 61 percent have not told another person about how to become a Christian in the previous six months. Most just do not know how to get a conversation started.
I began thinking, “Is there a way to help Christians simply get a conversation started? What can I do to diminish or even eliminate that initial barrier to conversation and make it easier for believers to share their faith with others?”
One day I happened upon a website selling Christian t-shirts and heard about “t-shirt evangelism.” I was fascinated to learn that the average t-shirt message is read over 3,000 times in the life of the shirt. What a practical yet powerful way to share a message with others!
The problem, I found, was that most of the shirts conveyed messages that, although clever, witty or artistic, would not mean much to someone who is an atheist or has doubts about Christianity. The messages on these t-shirts may get read but they would not spark a conversation.
I thought, “Why not create t-shirts that have thought-provoking messages of truth that will get non-believers to ask questions, or at least get them to think?" So we created a whole new way to think about t-shirt evangelism. We created t-shirts with hard-hitting, thought-provoking messages.
We call it:
TRUTH PROVOKERS SHIRTS ARE NOT YOUR AVERAGE CHRISTIAN TEES. IT'S T-SHIRT EVANGELISM ON THE NEXT LEVEL!
Each Truth Provokers T-Shirt displays a message that will pique the curiosity of non-believers and prompt them to ask questions. They will open the door for intelligent, evidence-based conversation. Every Truth Provokers t-shirt comes with a detailed explanation on the meaning of the shirt’s message PLUS instructions on how to use it as a witnessing tool.
Our goal is to empower one million people to become Truth Provokers & wear the Truth Provokers T-Shirts as a witness to the lost of this world. If one million people wore a t-shirt and sparked even a single conversation about the Gospel, that’s one million unsaved people who will have heard the message of salvation.
So please, JOIN THE MOVEMENT TO 1 MILLION TRUTH PROVOKERS SHIRTS.
BECOME A TRUTH PROVOKER TODAY!
Join The Movement at:
I became a Christian at the age of 17. Soon afterward I started to doubt that what I had experienced was real. I even doubted the very existence of God. So I bought several books, including The Case for Christ, Evidence that Demands a Verdict, More Than A Carpenter, The Biblical Basis for Modern Science and several others. I dove into these books and studied them inside and out. I became a student of Biblical and Christian Apologetics and it has been one of my passions ever since.
It was during these years I became very active in my church, and it didn't take me long to realize that the average Christian really has no idea why they believe the Bible. They had no concept that we as Christians should know these things. As 1 Peter 3:15 states:
"Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have."
My hope and my prayer is that, through something as simple as a t-shirt, fellow believers will be inspired to not only share their faith boldly with others, but that they will also spend time deepening their own understanding of the Gospel. The more you dive into the word of God, the more of a burning desire you will have to see others come to faith in Christ, and the easier it will become to start faith conversations yourselves.
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