The whole is assumed to have the same properties as its parts. The parts of a car are black and grey, therefore the entire car is black and grey. I’m talking about parts like the engine, wheels, and so on. Unless the paint is black and grey, then the fallacy of composition is committed. The fallacy of composition can be misused by both Christians and Atheists. Here are some more examples.
Think of a brick wall. All of the bricks are small, rectangular, and make a part of the whole thing. These are all characteristics of the brick, but not characteristics of the whole. Just because the bricks are small, rectangular and small doesn’t mean that the entire wall is small, rectangular. This would be committing the fallacy of the composition because the wall would be bigger than the parts that it’s composed of. The bricks could form a square instead of the rectangle in the bricks were combined in a certain way. Just because the bricks are light do not mean that the wall it builds is light. You simply cannot assume the parts that make the whole have the same characteristic.
Now this fallacy can get a bit sketchy because there is certain case where the certain attribute of a part that makes a whole will have the same characteristics as the thing it makes. For example, white tiles that make a floor will always make the floor white. If the bricks are red, then the wall that they form will be red as well. This is where you have to be careful with this fallacy.
This fallacy doesn’t work when it comes to the Kalam Cosmological argument because everything that makes up the universe is the universe. What we mean by the universe is everything that is made up of space, time, and matter. The universe is everything that is made up of space, time, and matter. The universe therefore is made of space, time, and matter. We do not commit the fallacy of composition in the Kalam Cosmological argument.
The fallacy of composition is a fallacy that can only be applied to certain things. We must actually compare the characteristics of the parts of something with the thing they make up. We must take on a case by case basis when it comes to certain physical characteristics like color. The fallacy of composition also fails when it comes to the Kalam Cosmological argument. This is another fallacy that can be committed if not investigated properly.
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